Son Byong-Hi

The Monument to the March 1st Movement

Eui-Am is one of the 2nd degree black belt patterns used in ITF-style taekwondo. Eui Am is the pseudonym of Son Byong-Hi, a leader of the Korean independence movement in 1919 C.E. The 45 movements of this form refer to his age, when in 1905 he changed the name of the Confucian religion Dong Hak  to Chondo Kyo (Heavenly Way). The diagram for this form represents his indomitable spirit while devoting his life to the prosperity of his nation.

After the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910, Son Byong-Hi, like essentially all Koreans, longed for independence. As a result of these years of oppression, Son helped to set up an underground anti-Japanese movement throughout 1918. This movement saw unprecedented cooperation between Chondo Kyo, Christians, and Buddhists as they united under a common cause. Son's Chondo Kyo gave financial support to the movement, and he insisted that the independence movement must be popular in nature and non-violent. A Declaration of Independence was prepared and 33 national leaders selected, including Son Byong-Hi.

The climax came on March 1, 1919 when, during a period of public mourning for the recently deceased Emperor Gojong, the Declaration of Independence was publicly proclaimed at Pagoda Park in Seoul — this was known as the March 1st Movement, or Samil Movement. This spark ignited the public, who took to the streets and demonstrated, calling for Korean independence. This initiated a nationwide movement in which many people took part, but the Japanese immediately mobilized their police and army and brutally put down the demonstrations, despite their peaceful nature. More than 7,500 Koreans were killed, nearly 17,000 wounded, and around 47,000 arrested, including Son Byong-Hi.

While in prison, Son became ill and was eventually released. His illness worsened, however, and in 1922 he died at home in Sangchunwon, just outside the Dongdaemun Gate. (See also: Sam-Il.)

Video[edit | edit source]

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Diagram[edit | edit source]

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Written Instructions[edit | edit source]

The lines of Eui-Am (student view)

Here on this wiki, the wording used to describe this form deviates from the conventional wording historically used to describe the form. This was done to facilitate wiki-style links to the names of associated techniques. To view the conventional wording, see ITF Forms Summary Description.

Black Belt Forms[edit | edit source]

The ITF-style Black Belt forms are:

Forms no longer used:

* Ko-Dang is an older form, replaced with Juche. Ko-Dang is still taught in some schools however.

U-Nam is an ITF/Chang Hon-style form that appears only in the 1959 edition of Choi Hong Hi's Tae Kwon Do Teaching Manual.

References[edit | edit source]

The primary reference is:

The following websites are also particularly good online references for ITF-style taekwondo:

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