Kukkiwon/WT Taekwondo uses the following series of forms (called the Yudanja series) for Black Belt forms:

  • Koryo (고려) - first dan, also spelled Goryeo and Koryeo ("learned man", symbolizing a wise person)
    • An older, deprecated form called Original Koryo is also considered by some clubs/associations to be one of the Yudanja forms, but it isn't considered so by the Kukkiwon (for gradings or the Master Instructor Course) or by the WTF (for the World Poomsae Championships).
  • Keumgang (금강)) - second dan ("diamond", symbolizing hardness, unbreakable)
  • Taebaek (태백)) - third dan ("sacred mountain", symbolizing spirituality)
  • Pyongwon (평원)- fourth dan, also spelled Pyeong-won ("open plain", symbolizing peacefulness)
  • Sipjin (싶진)) - fifth dan, also spelled Shipjin ("eternal 10", symbolizing health and longevity)
  • Jitae (지태) - sixth dan (symbolizes mankind as the connection between heaven and earth)
  • Cheonkwon (천권) - seventh dan, also spelled Cheon-gwon ("sky", symbolizing piety)
  • Hansoo (한수) - eighth dan, also spelled Hansu ("water", symbolizing adaptability)
  • Ilyeo (일여) - ninth dan (symbolizing the Buddhist concept of oneness of the mind and body)

Each of the yudanja forms has a floor pattern that traces out a Chinese character or other symbol. Each character is said to represent a characteristic that should be exhibited by a taekwondo master: wise, unbreakable, spiritual, peaceful, long-lived, pious, adaptable, etc.

Yudanja Meanings.png

일여 (ilyeo) refers to the Buddhist concept of oneness of the mind and body, the immaterial and material. The form therefore represents the oneness of mind and body achieved through training, and thus it represents the essence of martial arts. Stemming from Buddhism, the goal of spiritual life is Ilyo, oneness or nirvana. Only in this state is ego overcome. The ideal of taekwondo is Ilyo. It is a discipline in which you concentrate your attention on every movement and in doing so, shed all worldly thoughts and preconceptions.

Video[edit | edit source]

The Kukkiwon video for this form is here.


Diagram[edit | edit source]

To print the diagram, click on the image and select "See full size image," or right-click and open the image in a new tab.

Ilyeo 3D.png


Written Instructions[edit | edit source]

The Top of the Cross[edit | edit source]

Diamond Block

The Bottom of the Cross[edit | edit source]

A Crane Back Stance is like a Crane Stance where the off-foot is placed behind the knee of the standing leg.

Crane Back Stance with the Vertical Fingertip Thrust (i.e., Spearhand Thrust)

Single Leg Stance

Side Kick with a Single Mountain Block

High Cross Block

At the end of the High Cross Block, your hands twist to grip the opponent's wrist, then pull the opponent into your Reverse Punch

At the end of the High Cross Block, your hands twist to grip the opponent's wrist, then pull the opponent into your Reverse Punch

Fists to Waist stance

The Left Side of the Cross[edit | edit source]

The Right Side of the Cross[edit | edit source]

Jump Side Kick

The saddest Baro of them all: there are no more Kukkiwon/WTF-style poomsae to learn after Ilyeo -- you've REALLY reached the end now!

References[edit | edit source]

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