- Koryo (고려) - first dan, also spelled Goryeo and Koryeo ("learned man", symbolizing a wise person)
- An older, deprecated form called Original Koryo is also considered by some clubs/associations to be one of the Yudanja forms, but it isn't considered so by the Kukkiwon (for gradings or the Master Instructor Course) or by the WTF (for the World Poomsae Championships).
- Keumgang (금강)) - second dan ("diamond", symbolizing hardness, unbreakable)
- Taebaek (태백)) - third dan ("sacred mountain", symbolizing spirituality)
- Pyongwon (평원)- fourth dan, also spelled Pyeong-won ("open plain", symbolizing peacefulness)
- Sipjin (싶진)) - fifth dan, also spelled Shipjin ("eternal 10", symbolizing health and longevity)
- Jitae (지태) - sixth dan (symbolizes mankind as the connection between heaven and earth)
- Cheonkwon (천권) - seventh dan, also spelled Cheon-gwon ("sky", symbolizing piety)
- Hansoo (한수) - eighth dan, also spelled Hansu ("water", symbolizing adaptability)
- Ilyeo (일여) - ninth dan (symbolizing the Buddhist concept of oneness of the mind and body)
Each of the yudanja forms has a floor pattern that traces out a Chinese character or other symbol. Each character is said to represent a characteristic that should be exhibited by a taekwondo master: wise, unbreakable, spiritual, peaceful, long-lived, pious, adaptable, etc.
평원 (pyeong-won) refers to a vast plain. The unbroken expanse of a plain bestows a sense of majesty upon mankind while presenting an impression different from that which one receives when viewing tall mountains or endless forests. This form must express the majestic but friendly spirit of a vast plain.
To print the diagram, click on the image and select "See full size image," or right-click and open the image in a new tab.
Written Instructions Edit
This form is done all along one long line.
- Start in the Overlapping Hands ready position
- 1. Slide the left foot left into Parallel Stance. Slowly perform a Low Knifehand Opening Block.
- 2. Without stepping, slowly perform Pushing Hands.
- 3. Step right with the right foot to turn 90 right into Left Back Stance (i.e., right foot forward). Right Low Knifehand Block.
- 4. Pivot 180 counterclockwise to Right Back Stance (i.e., left foot forward). Left Middle Knifehand Block.
Main Sequence - start by going leftwardEdit
- 5. Slide the left foot forward into Left Front Stance. Right Elbow Uppercut.
- 6a. With the left foot fixed execute a Right Front Kick.
- 6b. Set the right foot down and pivot on the right foot 90 counter-clockwise, perform a Left Turning Side Kick.
- 6c. Set the Left foot down and pivot on the left foot 90 degrees in a clockwise rotation, place the right foot down into Left Back Stance (i.e., right foot forward). Rightward Double Knifehand Block.
- 7. Without stepping, move your hands in a big circle. Up and over your head to Right Low Knifehand Block.
- 8. Looking right, pivot counterclockwise 90 degrees to Horse Stance. Rightward Augmented High Side Block (Right arm performing a half mountain block, the left across your chest, palm down).
- 9a. Looking right, without stepping, twist the body to the right and lift the right leg.
- 9b. Stomp the right foot back down into Horse Stance again. Right Pulling Backfist Jaw Strike. Kihap.
- 9c. Without stepping, execute Left Pulling Backfist Strike.
- 10. Looking right, move the left foot rightward in front of the right foot into Cross Stance. Double Elbow Side Strike.
- 11. Looking right, move the right foot rightward into Horse Stance. Opening Mountain Block.
- 12a. Looking right, raise the right leg into Crane Stance. Diamond Block (left arm high).
- 12b. Looking right, without stepping (i.e., still in the Crane Stance), execute a Right Small Hinge Block (Left side of body. Right arm in front).
- 13a. Looking right, from the Crane Stance extend the right leg into a Right Side Kick.
Repeat the Main Sequence - start by going rightwardEdit
- 13b. Pivot clockwise and set the right foot down then pivot into Right Front Stance. Left Elbow Uppercut.
- 14a. With the right foot fixed execute a Left Front Kick.
- 14b. Set the left foot down and pivot on the left foot 90 clockwise, perform a Right Turning Side Kick.
- 14c. Set the Right foot down and pivot on the right foot 90 degrees in a counter-clockwise rotation, place the left foot down into Right Back Stance (i.e., left foot forward). Leftward Double Knifehand Block.
- 15. Without stepping, move your hands in a big circle. Up and over your head to a Left Low Knifehand Block.
- 16. Looking left, pivot clockwise 90 degrees to Horse Stance. Leftward Augmented High Side Block (Left arm performing a half mountain block, the right across your chest, palm down).
- 17a. Looking left, without stepping, twist the body to the left and lift the left leg.
- 17b. Stomp the left foot back down into Horse Stance again. Left Pulling Backfist Jaw Strike. Kihap.
- 17c. Without stepping, execute Right Pulling Backfist Strike.
- 18. Looking left, move the right foot leftward in front of the left foot into Cross Stance. Double Elbow Side Strike.
- 19. Looking left, move the left foot leftward into Horse Stance. Opening Mountain Block.
- 20a. Looking left, raise the left leg into Crane Stance. Diamond Block (right arm high).
- 20b. Looking left, without stepping (i.e., still in the Crane Stance), execute a Left Small Hinge Block.
- 21a. Looking left, from the Crane Stance extend the left leg into a Left Side Kick with Punch.
- 21b. Set the left down into Left Front Stance. Right Elbow Target Strike.
- Step with the left foot to turn right 90, and finish in the Overlapping Hands position.